It is reasonable to start with CT Head in the Emergency Department to rule out other CNS Catastrophes. However, MRI is a better tool to diagnose PRES. Magnetic Resonance Imaging recordings showing white matter abnormalities without infarction. Classical MRI findings of vasogenic edema involving bilateral parietal-occipital lobes.
PRES appears to be a misnomer as the syndrome is not always reversible, and it may not be localised to either the white matter or the posterior regions of the brain. Atypical features— including hemorrhage, asymmetrical changes, isolated involvement of the frontal lobes, and cortical lesions are common.
- Rapid withdrawal of the trigger (Eclampsia, Drugs)
- Prevent Seizures
- Aggressive blood pressure management
- PRES should be considered in patients who present with seizures, altered consciousness, visual disturbances, or headache, particularly with acute hypertension.
- PRES has been associated with chronic and acute kidney disease, solid organ transplantation, and use of immunosuppressive drugs.
- Typical MRI findings include reversible, symmetrical, posterior subcortical vasogenic edema.
- If recognized and treated promptly, the rapid-onset symptoms and radiologic features usually fully resolve within days to weeks.
- Hinchey J, Chaves C, Appignani B, et al. A reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(8):494-500
- Hobson, E. V., Craven, I., & Blank, S. C. (2012). Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome: A Truly Treatable Neurologic Illness. Peritoneal Dialysis International : Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis, 32(6), 590–594. http://doi.org/10.3747/pdi.2012.00152
- Fugate, J. E., Claassen, D. O., Cloft, H. J., Kallmes, D. F., Kozak, O. S., & Rabinstein, A. A. (2010). Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome: Associated Clinical and Radiologic Findings. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 85(5), 427–432. http://doi.org/10.4065/mcp.2009.0590